A Bullet’s Ballistic Coefficient is comprised of 3 basic components: Weight, Diameter, and Form Factor. The weight and diameter of the bullet combine to determine the bullets sectional density; that’s the amount of mass packed behind the frontal area of the bullet. Then form factor is what describes how streamlined the projectile is. A bullet with a long pointy nose and a boat tail will have less drag, and a lower form factor, than a blunt, flat based bullet. In particular, form factor is a number that relates the drag of a bullet to the drag of a standard such as G1 or G7. G7 form factors for long range bullets are from 0.95 (low drag) down to 0.88 (very low drag) for most typical long range bullets. The lowest drag projectiles made on lathes with very aggressive shapes, like our solid bullets, can have G7 form factors as low as 0.80, but that’s pretty rare.
Of the 3 elements that make up BC, form factor is the best way to increase BC because you can improve BC without increasing weight. Adding weight to increase BC depresses your muzzle velocity so there’s a trade-off. However, if you simply lower the drag of the bullet (lower form factor), you retain a high muzzle velocity while improving the BC.